To introduve historical conceptions oof identity
Foucalt 'discourse' methodology
Place and critique contemporary practice within these frameworks and to consider their validity
Consider 'Postmodern' theories of identity
Theories of identity
Modernity 1750 +
Essentialism suggests inner essence, biological make up which defines the person you are. stereotypical looks about 'good' and 'bad'
Post modernist disagree and become anti-essentialist
Theories not underpinned by practice
Physiognomy - 19th c white Europeon background- equate certain facial characteristics to intelligence.
Phrenology. Nicha blond haited blue eyed beast - Nazi foundations.
Compartmentalises the brain into different areas - Self perfecting, Perceptives, aspiring, animal. Different parts influence your behaviour and identity
Cesare Lombrosco (1835-1909) Founder of positive criminology - certain facial charactistics /criminal genes inherited
Physiognomy legitimising racism
Harpers Weekly 19th c suggesting The Iberians believed to have been an African race - see slide
Hieronymous Bosch - Christ carrying the cross c1515 - roots of antisemitism inheretly evil displayed by grotesque imagery.
Chris Oflil Holy Virgin Mary 1996 - work resinates with his Black origins- British but with African roots. Uses real elephant dung in his work. 1997 Sensation Exhibition YBAs Saatchi. Show at Metropolitan Art New York caused uproar in US.
Douglas Kellner - Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics between Modern and the Postmodern 1992
Pre modern identity - Personal identity is stable - defined by longstanding roles. Institutions determined identity. marriage 'ownership' of wife. The Curch, monarchy, governemt , work. Patriarchal society.
Eg Farm worker - the landed gentry
The Soldier - The state
Factory work - Industrial capitalism
The housewife - patriarchy
The Gentleman - patriarchy
Modern identity- Industrial revolution Offer wider social roles. Choose identity rather than born with it. People worry about who they are.
Postmodern identity- Fragmented self - Identity is constructed
19th and 20th centuries
Charles Baudelaire - The Painter of Modern Life 1863
Introduces the 'flaneur' (Gentleman stroller)
Thorstein Veblen - Theory of the leisure class 1899 - Clas who dont have to go to work. Conspicuous consumption - Fashion can be visual indicator.
Conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is a means of reputability to the gentleman of lesire.
Georg Simmel - The Metroplis and Mental Life
Introduces Trickle down theory, Leisure class all need to do is look good and walk around Paris. Aspired to and emulated. Distinction. The 'mask' of fashion - hide behind about what they are wearing. Eg happens today Fashion catwalk appears on High Street.
Edvard Munch Eving on Karl Johan 1892
See slide with quote from Simmel
Simmel suggests that because of the speed and mutability of modernity individuals withdraw into themselves to find peace. - See slide for more
Ingranied in the public Psyche,
Otherness - Race/ethnicity and Gender and sexuality
Studies have been focussed on white European hetrosexual men so Ethnic backgrounds tends to be overlooked so introdues the notion of 'otherness'
Worktown project 1937 Humphrey Spender trained as an Architect /mass observation in Bolton by upper classes from London. Loaded as Upper observing the lower. Nortern people being observed by Southern people. Flat caps, dogs. Midsummer nights dream audience - five people at theatre. Uncultured. Rabbit feet toys - Guise of doc photography but with a preconceived idea about what people are really like.
Awareness of all classes if you know which class you fit in and want to maintain its distinction.
Martin Parr New Brighton, Merseyside, from the Last Resort 1983-86 - Photographs
Claims to document the world as he sees it - accused of being condescending as viewing from a higher class. He argues he just takes photos of what he sees. Not glamorising this beach...
Bauman Identity 2004 quote
Idea of simulation - living roles that they dont relaly belong to
Sedlescombe from think of England 2002-2003
Think of gGermany - Cliches and stereotyical.
Alexander Macqueen - Highland rape collection 1995-6- fake blood. Stagger down catwalk. Controvertial caused massive attention to his work.
Vivienne Westwood 1993-4 - Anglomania deals with what it means to be British yet used Tartan... provoking Scottish people
Las Vegas sums up. Photos Venice, Eygypr,Paris, All forced into one place. 67% of Americans dont have passports..
Quote Victor Papenek 1995 - early pioneers of sustanablity and environmental design.
Sums up notion of why see the real world, dumming down of society.
Chris Ofili portraits No woman no cry1998 (Year won the Turner prize)
Large scale paintings Refers to Stephen Lawrence - his face in the tears
Captain shit and the Legend of the Black Stars 1994 - suggestion of how black per hero is viewed by a white audience.
In terns of ethnicity and race, Gillian Wearing, a white woman, from Signs that say what you want them to say and not signs that say what someone else wants you to say 1992-3
Probably edited as quite entertaining. We love the big willy.
Alexander Macqueen - accused of racism 1997-8 Naomi Campbell straightens her hairs.
Animal skin, horns critics a racist commentas Black links to fashion are cliches.
Emily Bates - Textile designer/artist early 1990's inspied by Mary Magdelene. c 1532. notion that she was evil/scarlet woman. Dress created using her own hair. Issues with red hair. Installation piece.
See Quote E Wilson 1985 Adorned in Dreasm: Fashion and Modernity
Gender tends to be about women. Fashion industry is the work of men not women.
1922-1925 Flapper The female boy - notion of gener sterotyping
Androgyny 1920's styl from the Punch Magazine
Masquerade and the mask of feminity - Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Stills. 1977-80
Scenarios that women get placed in. The Gaze women dont play any role in a film. just objectified by men.
See Sam Taylor-Wood Portrait1993
Sarah Lucas Au Naturel 1994 - Is it acceptable because a woman has portrayed it.
Tracey Emin - Everyone I have ever slept with 1963-95 as a female artist society read it as everyone I have had sex with so gets labelled as promiscuous. Literally everyone incl gradparents, friends etc
Germain Greer has written about how women artists view women -why does she photograph herself? Is it to avoid placinganother woman in this situation.
Wonderbra. Feminsist - peretuating myths or empowering to women? Perpetuates the notions of beauty.
Gillian Wearing - Lynne - man becoming a woman.
The Postmodern condition
Liquid Modernity and liquid love
Identity is constructed through your social experience.
Erving Goffman suggest that contemporary life is like acts and theatre - can chose how to act and look.
Bauman - Liquid identity see quote. can chose who you want to be.
Andy Hargreaves quote - everyone try to justify our existence.
Theodore Levitt The morality of advertising 1970 see quote. We try to make ourselves better about our own lives by looking at how bad others are. see quote and Gillian Wearing
Enlightment - Descartes
Barbara Kruger updates Descartes O shop therefore I am 1987 Cynical defines by where we shop
Selfrides and Kruger mocking consumers?
Quote Darley 2000 - Visual digital culture
Tom Hodgkinson - discussing what is happening when people stay in and go online instead going out.
Second life - 2009 virtual world. newspaper article. made their virtual relationship. got married without ever meeting. Constructing identities.